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The Old Town of Rhodes

This is an excerpt from the book Travels through History : 9 Greek Islands , newly available on Amazon.

Most travellers to Rhodes, the largest of the Dodecanese Islands, visit the Old Town of Rhodes and the ancient town of Lindos with its acropolis dating from the 6th-Century BCE. It may come as a surprise to learn that Lindos is around 500 years older than Rhodes Town and that Lindos was instrumental, along with two other city states on Rhodes – Kameiros and Ialyssos, in the founding of Rhodes Town, which became the capital of the island in 408BCE.

These four city states then allied themselves with the strongest military and political powers of the times. This nimble diplomacy lead to burgeoning wealth and importance as evidenced by the building of the Colossus of Rhodes in 304BCE. One of the seven wonders of the ancient world, this massive statue stood for approximately 80 years before being toppled by an earthquake. Economic decline set in when Rhodes became involved in the break-up of the 1st Roman triumvirate when the island was sacked by Cassius Longinus in 43BCE. During the next thousand years, Rhodes was passed from the Byzantines to the Genoese, who then handed over control to the Knights of St John in 1309. The Knights used Rhodes as their main base until ousted by the Ottoman Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent in a long siege between 1522 – 1523. As part of the Ottoman Empire, Rhodes fell into obscurity once again until the island was seized by the Italians in 1912.

Visiting the old town of Rhodes is a memorable experience as there are historical sights from different eras rubbing shoulders with each other at every turn. Most of the old town is medieval and was built in the 14th Century by the Knights Hospitaller. The old town became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988 and is an incredibly popular place to visit. Indeed, when a cruise ship arrives in the harbour, avoid the main arterial streets, Sokratous and Ippoton, and head south into the warren of cobbled alleys where there are fewer shops and restaurants, and discover the many interesting sights of this area, not all of which are mentioned in guidebooks.

Starting in the north-west of the Old Town, the first major sight the visitor comes across is the Palace of the Grand Masters, which was rebuilt by the Italians after an ammunition explosion destroyed the original building in 1856. The idea was that the reconstructed Palace would be an ideal place for Mussolini to spend time during the summer, but he never came near the place. The outside appearance is true to the original building, as authentic medieval plans were used in the reconstruction, but the same can’t be said for the inside, which was designed to make a Fascist dictator feel at home.

If you’d like to read more, the book Travels through History : 9 Greek Islands is newly available on Amazon.

Symi

This is an excerpt from the book Travels through History : 9 Greek Islands , newly available on Amazon.

In Homer’s Iliad Symi is mentioned as the domain of King Nireus, who fought in the Trojan War on the side of the Greeks and Thucydides writes that during the Peloponnesian War there was a Battle of Syme near the island in January, 411 BC, in which an unspecified number of Spartan ships defeated a squadron of Athenian vessels. Little else is known of the island until the 14th century, but archaeological evidence indicates it was continuously inhabited, and ruins of citadels suggest it was an important location.

Like many Greek Islands, Symi was first part of the Roman Empire and then the Byzantine Empire. However, unlike many Greek Islands, Symi was conquered by the Knights of St. John in 1373. This conquest fuelled by the Knights’ interest in shipping and commerce, launched what was to be a period of several centuries of prosperity for Symi, as its location made it an important waypoint for trade until the advent of steam-powered shipping in the 19th century.

The island was conquered in 1522 by the Ottomans (along with Rhodes) but it was allowed to retain many of its privileges, so the prosperity continued virtually uninterrupted. Symi was noted for its sponges which provided much of its wealth. It attained the height of its prosperity in the mid-19th century, which is why so many of the mansions covering the slopes of Symi Town date from that period.

Although Symiots took part in the Greek War of Independence of 1821–1829, Symi was left out of the new Greek state when its borders were drawn up and so remained under Ottoman rule. Symi, along with the rest of the Dodecanese, changed hands several times in the 20th century: in 1912 the Dodecanese declared independence from the Ottomans as the Federation of the Dodecanese Islands, though they were almost immediately occupied by Italy. The island was formally ceded to Italy in 1923, and on 12 October 1943 it was occupied by the Nazis. At the end of World War II, the surrender of German forces in the region took place on Symi and the island was subject to several years of occupation by the British. Symi finally became part of Greece in 1948.

Arriving at Symi Town is the loveliest way to begin any visit to a Greek Island. The bay has low hills on all sides and on those hills are stacked differently coloured ochre Italianate mansions, each one a slightly shade to its neighbour. The slope of the hills means these mansions appear in neat rows above one another, leaving the visitor spellbound by the man-made beauty. Added to this are lines of sail boats, small ferries, and large yachts bobbing rhythmically on the swell by the quay.

The wealth of Symi has been based on sponge diving and shipbuilding. Indeed just over a hundred years ago, these two industries meant more people lived in Symi Town than lived in nearby Rhodes Town. Symi has always been famed for its shipbuilding and legend has it that Symi provided 3 ships for the Greeks in the Trojan War. Nowadays tourism is the main earner, with enough expats staying on the island to allow some businesses to remain open all year round. Some of the houses built in the last two centuries have fallen into disrepair and the more you explore, the more ruins you will find.

If you’d like to read more, the book Travels through History : 9 Greek Islands is newly available on Amazon.

Patmos

This is an excerpt from the book Travels through History : 9 Greek Islands , newly available on Amazon.

The island of Patmos has been inhabited since 3,000 BC, but the identity of those first inhabitants has not been conclusively proved. Some believe that the Kares, and the Leleges were the first settlers, others believe the Dorians were the first inhabitants, followed by the Ionians. Finds have excavated various buildings, cemeteries, fortresses and evidence of an ancient acropolis, testifying the existence of a densely populated area in the past, but no one can conclusively prove who built it.

During the Peloponnesian Wars, the Lacedemonians came to the island to escape from the Athenians and there are ruins that show a flourishing island during this period. However, Patmos started to decline when the Romans conquered it and used the island as a place of exile for convicts.

It was in these circumstances that St John the Divine or St John the Evangelist was exiled to Patmos from Ephesus in 95AD by the Roman Emperor Domitian. It’s said St John wrote his Gospel on Patmos, but his exile here is better remembered for his authorship of the last book of The Bible, The Book of Revelations. St John heard the voice of God and dictated the words to his scribe Prohoros in a cave on the island. The imagery provided by Revelations has been used ever since in frescoes to depict to people what will happen to them if they don’t believe in God and don’t follow the path of the righteous.

The Whore of Babylon, the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, and the Seven Trumpets that will sound to cue apocalyptic events are all depicted in Revelation. This book was sent to the Seven Churches of Asia Minor before John was allowed to return home.

A thousand years later the cave used by St John was enclosed within a chapel, which is now visited by hundreds of people on a daily basis as part of the Apokalypsis monastery. The chapel and cave together comprise an area not much more than ten metres square, with a central rock pillar that manages to divide the whole area roughly into two areas of about the same size. The first area nearer the entrance is where visitors stand and look around the chapel. The second area, closer to the icons at the front of the chapel, is where services take place and where people attending those services stand. My advice is to get there early so you can soak some of the atmosphere and have a good look at what there is to see namely, a small opening in the rock, outlined by beaten silver, where St John is said to have rested his head every night and a smaller gap in the rock, also outlined by beaten silver, which St John used to haul himself up in the morning after lying on the cave floor.

I was lucky enough to see a Greek Orthodox service at the Apokalypsis monastery, only attended by local people. The priest wore a white ‘dress’ decorated with Greek crosses. He had a large, bushy grey beard and his hair was a similar colour. He spent most of the service in an inner room chanting while two men, members of the congregation not garbed in priestly attire but definitely part of the service, on the opposite side of the inner half of the chapel were counterpoint to his chants. People attending the service had lit candles when coming in to the chapel, but these were replaced every 10 minutes by one of the two men helping to run the service, who would replace each thrown-away candle with a new one. There were a few chairs in the inner part of the chapel and there was no music, the only sounds were the three human voices.

If you’d like to read more, the book Travels through History : 9 Greek Islands is newly available on Amazon.